Researchers Database

Kazufumi Nagatsu

    Department of Global Diversity Studies Professor
    Asian Cultures Research Institute Professor
    Course of Sociology Professor
Last Updated :2022/05/07

Researcher Information


  • Ph.D(Kyoto University)

Research funding number

  • 20324676

J-Global ID

Research Interests

  • border   social history of development   Sama-Bajau   Social History of Maritime Folks   Nation-State and Societies   Southeast Asian Maritime World   Maritime Southeast Asia; Nation-State and Society   

Research Areas

  • Humanities & social sciences / Local studies / Social Dynamics in Southeast Asia
  • Humanities & social sciences / Local studies / Southeast Asian Studies
  • Humanities & social sciences / Cultural anthropology and folklore / Cultural Anthropology

Academic & Professional Experience

  • 2006/04 - Today  Toyo UniversityFaculty of SociologyAssociate Professor
  • 2017/10 - 2018/03  National University of SingaporeAsia Research InstituteVisiting Senior Research Fellow
  • 2017/04 - 2017/09  Kyoto UniversityCenter for Southeast Asian StudiesVisiting Associate Professor
  • 2005/05 - 2006/03  Kyoto UniversityCenter for Southeast Asian StudiesAssistant Professor
  • 2000/05 - 2005/04  Kyoto UniversityGraduate School of Asian and African Area StudiesAssistant Professor
  • 1998/04 - 2000/04  Japan Society for the Promotion of ScienceResearch Fellow (PD)


  • 1993/04 - 1998/03  Kyoto University  Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies  Division of Cultural and Regional Studies
  • 1992/04 - 1993/03  Sophia University  Graduate School of Foreign Studies
  • 1987/04 - 1992/03  Sophia University  Faculty of Foreign Studies  Department of the Russian Studies

Association Memberships


Published Papers

  • Maritime Diaspora and Creolization: Genealogy of the Sama-Bajau in Insular Southeast Asia
    NAGATSU Kazufumi
    Senri Ethnological Studies 95 35 - 64 2017/12 [Refereed]
  • Social Space of the Sea Peoples: A Study on the Arts of Syncretism and Symbiosis in the Southeast Asian Maritime World
    NAGATSU Kazufumi
    The Journal of Sophia Asian Studies 33 111 - 140 2016/03 [Refereed]
  • The Institutionalization of Islam in Sabah, Malaysia: Its Historical Process and Peculiarities
    NAGATSU Kazufumi
    Annual Reports of Asian Research Institute, Toyo University 48 279 - 296 2014
  • Social Space of Maritime Folks in Eastern Indonesia: A Field Trip to Geser Island with Prof. Murai
    NAGATSU Kazufumi
    Waseda Asia Review 14 31 - 34 2013
  • Nagatsu Kazufumi
    Japanese Journal of Southeast Asian Studies Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Kyoto University 50 (1) 143 - 146 0563-8682 2012
  • The Making of “Maritime Folk:” A Case Study of Sama in and around the Sulawesi Sea Zone, Indonesia
    NAGATSU Kazufumi
    Hakusan Review of Anthropology 15 45 - 71 2012 [Refereed]
  • Trades in Southeast Asia and the Dynamics of Maritime Societies
    NAGATSU Kazufumi
    Quarterly Ethnology 133 47 - 51 2010
  • A Preliminary Spatial Data on the Distribution of the Sama-Bajau Population in Insular Southeast Asia
    NAGATSU Kazufumi
    Hakusan Review of Anthropology 13 2010
  • A Note on the Distribution of the Sama-Bajau Population: With Special Reference to Sulawesi and the Adjacent Islands
    NAGATSU Kazufumi
    Intriguing Asia 113 92 - 102 2008 [Refereed]
  • Arti Sosial Perbatasan Negara: Kaji Ulang Mobilitas Orang Laut di Asia Tenggara Modern
    NAGATSU Kazufumi
    An Annual Report of Academic Frontier FY2007, Tokyo: Asian Research Institute, Toyo University 70 - 85 2007
  • Institutionalization of Islam and Changes of Religious Practices: A Case Study of the Sama Dialaut in Sabah, Malaysia
    NAGATSU Kazufumi
    Occasional Papers, Research Center for the Pacific Islands (Kagoshima University) 43 45 - 69 2006 [Refereed]
  • To Be “Correct” Muslims: The Sama Dilaut’s Experience with Official Islam in Sabah, Malaysia
    NAGATSU Kazufumi
    Japanese Journal of Cultural Anthropology 69 (1) 45 - 69 2004 [Refereed]
  • The Making of Islamic Knowledge at the Periphery: A Case of the Sama Dilaut in Sabah, Malaysia (1950s-70s)
    NAGATSU Kazufumi
    The Journal of Sophia Asian Studies 20 173 - 196 2002 [Refereed]
  • Pirates, Sea Nomads or Protectors of Islam? A Note on “Bajau” Identifications in the Malaysian Context
    NAGATSU Kazufumi
    Asian and African Area Studies 1 212 - 230 2001 [Refereed]
  • A Sketch on the Southward Migratory Movement of the Sama in and around the West Celebes Sea
    NAGATSU Kazufumi
    The Journal of Sophia Asian Studies 15 99 - 131 1997 [Refereed]
  • Coral Reef Fisherfolks and their Space Cognition: Notions of “Land,” “Sea,” and Coral Reef Space among Sama in Sitangkai, Sulu Archipelago
    NAGATSU Kazufumi
    Southeast Asian Studies 35 (2) 261 - 300 1997 [Refereed]
  • Research on Bajau Communities: Maritime People in Southeast Asia
    Lapian, A. B; NAGATSU, Kazufumi
    Asian Research Trends: A Humanities and Social Science 6 45 - 70 1996 [Refereed]
  • Maritime Sama: Their Strategies for Livelihood on the Sea
    NAGATSU Kazufumi
    Quarterly Ethnology 74 18 - 31 1995

Books etc

  • Living on the Border: An Historical Ethnography of the Sama Dilaut in Sabah, Malaysia
    NAGATSU Kazufumi (Single work)Mokuseisha 2019/02 481 
  • 生態資源――モノ・ヒト・場を生かす世界(山田勇・赤嶺淳・平田昌弘(編)))
    長津 一史 (Contributorひと・海・資源のダイナミクス――東南アジア海域世界におけるバジャウ人と商業性, 55-82ページ)京都:昭和堂 2018/05 9784812217030 296 55-82
  • An Ethnography of Mobile Sea Peoples: A Cultural History in the Western Pacific, edited by ONO, Rintaro; NAGATSU Kazufumi; INTOH Michiko
    NAGATSU Kazufumi (Joint editorMovement of Sea Peoples and its Networks: Focusing on West Celebes Sea Routes, pp. 148-177)Showado 2018/03 9784812217184 400 1-37ページ
  • Politics: An Introduction to Southeast Asian Studies, edited by YAMAMOTO Nobuto
    NAGATSU Kazufumi (ContributorPeripheries)Keio University Press 2017/02 9784766423969 344 71-91
  • Global Studies from Peoples' Perspective: In Search of Philosophy and Practice of Co-existence, edited by Kaida Machiko, Satake Makoto, Nagatsu Kazufumi, and Hataya Noriko
    NAGATSU Kazufumi (Joint editorSocial Space of the Sea Peoples: A Study on the Arts of Syncretism and Symbiosis in the Southeast Asian Maritime World, pp. 111-140.)Sophia University Press 2016/01 111-140ページ
  • Proceedings of Asian CORE Workshop on Interface, Negotiation, and Interaction in Southeast Asia, edited by Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Kyoto University
    NAGATSU Kazufumi (ContributorJalan Tikus on the Sea: Persisting Maritime Frontier and Multi Layered Networks in Wallacea, pp. 55-71)Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Kyoto University. 2013/10 55-71
  • Indonesia as a Multi-Ethnic Country, edited by Kagami Haruya
    NAGATSU Kazufumi (ContributorA Genealogy of Creolism: The Making of Sama in and around the Sulawesi Sea Zone, pp. 249-284)Tokyo: Mokuseisha 2012
  • A Social History of Development: Dynamics of Gender, Minority and Periphery in Southeast Asia, edited by Nagatsu Kazufumi; and Kato Tsuyoshi
    NAGATSU Kazufumi (ContributorDevelopment and Boundary: Reorganization and Fragmentation of the Sama Dilaut at the Malaysian Periphery)Tokyo: Fukyosha 2010
  • A Social History of Development: Dynamics of Gender, Minority and Periphery in Southeast Asia
    Nagatsu Kazufumi; Kato Tsuyoshi (Editor)Tokyo: Fukyosha 2010
  • Southeast Asia: Volume III of the Asakura Lecture on World Geography, edited by Fujimaki Masami; and Noma Haruo
    NAGATSU Kazufumi (ContributorMaritime Folks in Insular Southeast Asia: A Genealogy of Population Movement and Maritime Networks, pp. 250-259)Tokyo: Asakura Syoten 2009
  • Indonesia as a Multi-linguistic Society, edited by Moriyama Mikihiro; and Shiohara Asako
    NAGATSU Kazufumi (ContributorLinguistic Locus at the Periphery: Dynamic of Language Use among the Sama in Malaysia and Indonesia, pp 183-212)Tokyo: Mekong 2009
  • Crossing Disciplinary Boundaries and Re-visioning Area Studies: Perspectives from Asia and Africa, edited by Maruyama Junko, et al.
    NAGATSU Kazufumi (ContributorCross-Border Movements and Convertibility of Maritime Networks: A Case of the Sama-Bajau in the Sulu-Makassar Sea)Kyoto: Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies/ Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Kyoto University 2006
  • Reports on the Religious Situation Abroad, edited by the Agency for Cultural Affairs, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan
    NAGATSU Kazufumi (ContributorEast Malaysia (Sabah), pp. 187-210)Tokyo: Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan 2005
  • Changing Southeast Asia: Dynamics of Ethnicity, Religion and Culture, edited by Kato Tsuyoshi
    NAGATSU Kazufumi (ContributorPolitics over “Correct” Religion: Islam and Nation-States at the Maritime Border Zone in Malaysia, pp. 245-293)Tokyo: Mekong 2004
  • Maritime Asia (Series Contemporary East Asia and Japan 4), edited by Sekine, Masami and Yamamoto, Nobuto
    NAGATSU Kazufumi (ContributorHistorical Frameworks of Transnational Movements: The Sama and Nation-States in West Celebes Sea, pp.173-202)Tokyo: Keio University Press 2004
  • Maritime Asia vol.3: Dynamism of Islanders (edited by Omoto Kei-ichi,
    NAGATSU Kazufumi (ContributorSea and National Boundary: Population Movements and Livelihoods of Sama Dilaut in the West Celebes Sea, pp. 173-202)Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten 2001
  • A Frontier of Fieldwork: Watch, Listen and Walk (edited by Yamada, Isamu)
    NAGATSU Kazufumi (ContributorA Brief History on the Population Movements of the Sama in Celebes Sea: Maritime Folks and Copra Transporting, pp. 153-172)Tokyo: Kobundo 1996 153-172

Conference Activities & Talks

  • Kazufumi Nagatsu
    The 10th European Association for Southeast Asian Studies (EuroSEAS), Berlin: Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 13, Sep. 2019.  2019/09
  • Kazufumi Nagatsu
    Monthly Regional Meeting, Japan Society for Southeast Asian Studies  2019/06
  • NAGATSU Kazufumi
    The 12th International Conference on Hunting and Gathering Societies  2018/07  Penang  International Society for Hunter Gatherer Research
  • NAGATSU Kazufumi
    Asian Research Institute Cluster Seminar: Religionization at Margins in Insular Southeast Asia: Introducing Recent Southeast Asian Studies in Japan  2018/03  Singapore: National University of Singapore  Asia Research Institute, National University of Singapore
    This seminar aims at introducing recent Southeast Asian studies in Japan focusing on the religionization of marginalized peoples, such as minorities or peoples in the peripheries in Insular Southeast Asia. In the last few decades, the national religious authorities have shaped public affairs and deeply intervened in the every-day religious lives in Malaysia and Indonesia, while global non-governmental missionaries have extended their outreach activities to the least visited communities in the Philippines and Indonesia. Experiencing these modern religionization process, religious life of the marginalized peoples has changed more drastically than that of the mainstream societies. The reason is that the religious order of the modern nation-states or global missionaries is configured on the basis of the ideals, values and concepts of the mainstream societies which are often far different from those of the marginalized peoples. How have such marginalized peoples reorganized their religious lives in the religionization process? This general question will be addressed in the following three presentations in this seminar: Islamization of the Bajau in Sabah, Malaysia and eastern Indonesia; Christianization of the Sama Dilaut/Bajau in Mindanao, the Philippines; and cultural reorientation of “Bissu” or androgynous priests among the Bugis, in South Sulawesi, Indonesia.
  • Maritime Movements and Ethic Reformation of the Bajau in Indonesian Maritime World  [Invited]
    NAGATSU Kazufumi
    International Science Conference on Bajo Society  2017/05  Makassar, Indonesia  Hasanuddin University
  • Bajau as Maritime Creoles: Dynamic of the Ethnogenesis in Southeast Asian Maritime World  [Not invited]
    NAGATSU Kazufumi
    The 6th International Symposium of Jurnal Antropologi Indonesia  2016/07  University of Indonesia, Depok  University of Indonesia
  • NAGATSU Kazufumi
    The 95th Biannual Conference, Japan Society of Southeast Asian Studies  2016/06  Toyonaka Campus, Osaka University  Japan Society of Southeast Asian Studies
    わたしは近年、東南アジア海民論の試論として二つの論文[長津 2012, 2016]を書いた。そこでは、東南アジアの海民がしばしばクレオール集団を構成してきたことに着目し、そうした民族生成が生じる場の政治過程やその社会空間について考えた。政治過程については周縁性・違法性・自立性を、社会空間については持続的な混淆と在地の共生を、それぞれの特徴として挙げた。本報告では、わたしがそうした海民論を考えるなかで、どのような比較を設定していたのか、また東南アジア海民論のさらなる展開をみすえたとき、どのような比較が地域研究として意味を持ちうるのかを検討してみたい。 取りあげるのは、わたしが調査を続けてきたバジャウ人である。報告ではまず、バジャウ人の民族生成に焦点をおいた上記の海民論を紹介する。そのうえで、そこでの議論が、第一に地域内比較を手法として展開されたこと、第二に地域間比較を念頭において構想されたことを示す。 第一の地域内比較とは、フィールドワークに基づく約60の海民集落間、あるいはそれらが位置する海域圏間の比較を指す。この空間軸での比較と変化を手がかりとする時間軸での比較こそが、上記の海民論の基点、つまりバジャウ人をクレオール海民という視点で動態的に理解することを可能にした。 第二の地域間比較は、メタ地域間比較とグローバル地域間比較にわけられる。メタ地域間比較とは、東南アジアあるいはアジアの異なる「地域」、具体的にはジャワや東アジアの「陸域世界」との比較を指す。この比較では、1980年代以降の東南アジア海域世界論における陸地中心史観に対する批判をわたしの海民論に接合している。その内容は、アカデミズムにおける地域認識の相違を批判的に提示することを企図している。この容易ならざる比較をここで無謀にも取りあげるのは、それを射程におくことなしに、地域研究における東南アジア海民論の意義を示すことができないからである。 もうひとつのグローバル地域間比較とは、海民や海域世界を一般概念・類型として措定し、その内容や歴史過程を地域ごとに比較考察するかたちの比較である。それは、海民や海域世界の地域性/通地域性(普遍性)、時代性/通時代性(プロトタイプ性)を明らかにすることを目指す試みである。グローバル地域間比較については、東アジア海域世界を対比事例として簡潔に展望を述べる。
  • NAGATSU Kazufumi
    Consortium for Southeast Asian Studies in Asia (SEASIA) “Southeast Asian Studies in Asia” Conference. Kyoto: Kyoto International Conference Center.  2015/12  Kyoto: Kyoto International Conference Center  Consortium for Southeast Asian Studies in Asia (SEASIA)
    This presentation examines the “Islamization” of the Bajau, a maritime minority, in Malaysia and Indonesia by placing the process in local, national and global contexts. “Islamization” here refers to the process through which the Bajau have regarded themselves as “authentic” Muslims and also gained status as such in local society. The Bajau were once known as sea nomads and have so far constituted a distinctive maritime population in the region. Their settlements are dispersed widely from the southern Philippines, Sabah in Malaysia, to eastern Indonesia. Although they were once considered illegitimate Muslims by the neighboring dominant groups due to the latters’ prejudice, the Bajau are now reputed as pious Muslims in some regions. The processes of Islamization took place partially in connection with the global trend of Islamic resurgence starting in the 1970s. The processes have been, however, well modified in accordance with the local ethnic relations or the national religious policies, as well. In what contexts have the Bajau become “pious Muslims”? How similar or different are the contexts in Malaysia and those in Indonesia? These questions form the basis of the present study. Specifically, it analyzes and compares two cases of Islamization of the Bajau in Semporna, a border town in Sabah, Malaysia and in Sapekan, a remote island of East Jawa, Indonesia.
  • NAGATSU Kazufumi
    The 94th Annual Symposium of Japan Society of Southeast Asian Studies  2015/12  Waseda University, Tokyo  Japan Society of Southeast Asian Studies
    本報告では、報告者が東洋大学において約10年間関わってきた学部レベルの臨地(フィールド)教育プロジェクトを題材に、①その系譜・企図、②学生の反応、③課題と可能性の3点について話す。 報告者は、2006年、東洋大学社会学部に着任した。報告者は、この教育組織に東南アジアに関わる臨地教育を持ち込むことを目論んだ。しかし、そこには当時、海外臨地教育を支える制度基盤は存在せず、さらに学生の大半は東南アジアについての知識も関心も持っていなかった。こうした状況で考えついたのが、「ふつう」の学生でも見聞きしたことがあるような東南アジアに関わる問題と日本を、身近なモノを媒介に結びつけ、そこに臨地教育を組み入れることであった。1980〜90年代、市民運動に取り組む東南アジア研究者が、バナナやエビを題材として「南北問題」にアプローチした手法を真似たのである。具体的には、まず熱帯林伐採を念頭において「紙と古紙」を、ついで日常生活のグローバル化を念頭において「古着」をそれぞれテーマとする教育プログラムを組織した。別の教員は、社会運動のグローバル展開を念頭に「コーヒーのフェアトレード」を取りあげた。いずれのプログラムも日本と東南アジアの双方に体験学習の場を設定した。 こうして約10年の間に、東南アジアに関わる臨地教育をカリキュラム化することに成功した。とにもかくにも学生の東南アジアに対する関心を喚起することはできた。しかし、東南アジアでの体験学習にまで参加する学生の数はいまだ少数にとどまる。ボランティアの枠組みを超えて東南アジアに関心を持ち、自ら調査に取り組むような学生は現れていない。報告者の教育能力の不足もある。しかしおそらく問題は、東南アジアさらには海外自体への学生の興味関心が過去10年ほどの間、低下し続けていることに深く関わる、つまり構造的な性格を帯びている。一歩先の臨地教育に向かう道のりは、決して単調ではない。 東南アジア地域研究の専門家がおこなう臨地教育では、その人の地域に根ざした総合的な知識と広範なネットワークが大いに役立つ。その内容は、既成のスタディ・ツアーとは一線を画したレベルで構想されうる。ただし、専門家の関心の押しつけに学生は近づかない。学部学生向けの臨地教育は、自らの専門と、かれらを惹きつけることができそうな関心との妥協点に設定されることになる。東南アジア研究者は、自らのキャリアを活かしつつ、「ふつうの」大学生に向けてどのような臨地教育プログラムを構想しうるのか。本報告では、いま述べた東洋大学の臨地教育を事例としてこの問いを検討してみたい。
  • NAGATSU Kazufumi
    Peoples Go across National Boundaries  2015/11  北九州市  北九州市立大学アジア文化社会研究センター
    21世紀にはいり、社会のグローバル 化が深化しているといわれている。 グローバル化という言葉には、その前 提として、国境を定める近代国家という社会システムの存在が不可分なもの として含まれている。しかし、その一 方で近代国家の成立以前より人々は移 動と越境を繰りかえしてきた。そして、 現代社会は、こうした越境の人々を巻 き込みながら、新しい文化複合を生み 出している。今回のシンポジウムでは、漂海民・華 人・島嶼民を対象にフィールドワーク をおこなっている3人の研究者が、それぞれの研究成果をもとに、近年の社 会変容も含め、近代的な国民国家の背 後に伏流する越境の文化を語る。
  • Orang Bajau sebagai Kreol Maritim: Ethnogesnesis dan Kontek Sosio-ekologinya di Laut Wallacea  [Invited]
    NAGATSU Kazufumi
    Seminar Nasional: Peranan Geografi dalam Mendukung Kedaulatan Pangan, Cibinon: Badan Informasi Geospasial  2015/04
  • Area Infomatics as a Tool of Area Stidies  [Not invited]
    NAGATSU Kazufumi
    Monthly Meeting of Japan Society of Southeast Asian Studies, Tokyo: Hongo Satellite of Tokyo University of Foreign Studies  2014/11
  • NAGATSU Kazufumi
    International Borneo Research Council Conference (BRC 2014), Kota Kinabalu: Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS)  2014/08  Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia  The Borneo Research Council (BRC)
  • NAGATSU Kazufumi
    The 14th IUAES: International Union of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Chiba: Makuhari Messe  2014/05  Makuhari Messe, Chiba  IUAES (International Union of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences)
    This paper deals with the ethnogenesis of the Bajau as a maritime creole in Insular Southeast Asia. It aims at examining highly hybrid natures of their ethnic background and socio-ecological contexts of the environment where the mobile aquatic population have maintained such hybrid natures.
  • New Maneuver through Old Network: Maritime Folks’ Trading of Sea Turtle and Used Clothes in Wallacea  [Not invited]
    NAGATSU Kazufumi
    Asian CORE Program Seminar “Interface, Negotiation, and Interaction in Southeast Asia, Kyoto: CSEAS, Kyoto University  2014/02
  • 長津 一史
    第22回日本マレーシア学会研究大会シンポジウム「比較のなかのマレーシア――民族と宗教に関する国家・地域間比較への展望」  2013/12  京都、同志社大学今出川キャンパス  日本マレーシア学会
    サマ・バジャウ(以下、バジャウ)人は、マレーシアのサバ州・インドネシアの東部・フィリピンの南部の三カ国に跨って居住する。本報告では、このバジャウ人の民族集団としての生成過程のダイナミクスについて、比較の視点から検討する。 3か国すべての人口をあわせたバジャウ人の総人口は約110万人。100万人程度の人口規模の民族が、これほど広域に拡散している例は、島嶼部東南アジアでは他にみられない。広大な海域での拡散居住とあわせてバジャウ人に特徴的なことは、3か国いずれの人口もバジャウ総人口のうちの一定の割合を占めていること、つまりバジャウ人はいずれかの国に集中的に分布しているわけではないことである。本シンポジウムのテーマとの関わりで興味深いのは、バジャウ人の社会的・文化的位相や、民族集団としての生成・再編の様式が上記の3か国で様々に異なっていることである。また、バジャウ人の民族再編は、1990年代以降のグローバル化ないしインドネシアの民主化の潮流のもと、従来にないかたちで展開しつつある。そのあり方にも国家間での差異がみられる。 本報告の目的は、3か国を単位とする国家間比較を念頭におきつつも、まずはインドネシアとマレーシアの事例を取りあげて、バジャウ人の民族生成・再編の過程を比較検討することにある。具体的には、まず1)インドネシアにおけるバジャウ人の生成・再編の過程を、植民地化以前から国民国家成立以降までの時間軸で通観し、その連続性と非連続性を検討する。ついで2)1の過程をマレーシアにおけるバジャウ人の生成・再編の過程と対照させ、両者の過程にみられる異同(主にマレーシア側の独自性)を示す。そのうえで、3)1990年代以降のグローバル化状況における民族再編メカニズムの、インドネシア、マレーシアそれぞれ独自性と通地域的な共通性をも展望してみたい。
  • From Tortoise Shell to Grouper: Marine Resource Exploitation and the Making of Maritime Creole in Wallacea  [Invited]
    NAGATSU Kazufumi
    International Workshop: World History for Current Issues: Environmental Issues, Globalization, and Conflicts  2013/10  Hongo Campus, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo  Global History Collaborative
    My research is concerned with the marine resource exploitation and its significance in the making process of “maritime creoles” in Wallacean Sea. In Insular Southeast Asia, sea-oriented peoples of varied origins have occasionally emerged or formed a maritime creole. The Malay are a well-known sea-oriented ethnic group of which ancestors are of highly hybrid in nature. The Balangigi who were once recorded as pirates in the western literature may also be such a creole group. The proposed research pays special attention to the Sama-Bajau as the maritime creole. Through the analyse, it aims at understanding 1) patterns of their marine resource exploitation, 2) structures of the fishing and trading networks of the marine products and 3) socio-ecological characteristics at a certain maritime environment where the maritime folk have maintained and reconstructed highly hybrid natures in relation to the formation of their community and identity. With an approximate population of 1,100,000, many of the Sama-Bajau live along coasts and on islands. Their settlements are dispersed widely over the southern Philippines, coasts of Sabah, Malaysia, and eastern Indonesia. They constitute one of the most distinctive maritime folks in Insular Southeast Asia. It is in my understanding less significant to seek their “true” origin from the historical essentialists’ viewpoint, as the Sama-Bajau and the neighbouring communities are supposed to have constantly converted their ethnic identification from non-Sama-Bajau into Sama-Bajau, or vice versa. Their marine resource exploitation and network formation are considered to be a key to understanding the making process of the Sama-Bajau as a maritime creole. The discussion will focus on the use and trade of sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricate and Chelonia mydas), tropical trepang (Holothuriidae spp.) or live groupers (Plectropomus leopardus and others), which have been exported exclusively to the Chinese markets. The Sama-Bajau have long and most intensively been involved in the fishing of these products in Southeast Asia. The study pays particular attention to the cases of the Sama-Bajau in Kangean islands, East Jawa and the other parts of eastern Indonesia, although it partially refers to the cases of the Sama-Bajau in Sulu Archipelago, the Philippines and Sabah, Malaysia. The Kangean islands are situated at the nodal point of major sea routes, i.e. Jawa Sea, Makassar Straits and Flores Sea. The study is mainly based on the statistical and spatial data, such as censuses or GIS, and the fieldworks which I have conducted among the Sama-Bajau villages since 1995.


  • Wallacean World / Maritime World
    Kazufumi Nagatsu  Encyclopedia of Southeast Asian Cultures  2019/06
  • 長津 一史; ナガツ カズフミ; NAGATSU Kazufumi  Field+ : フィールドプラス : 世界を感応する雑誌 / 東京外国語大学アジア・アフリカ言語文化研究所 [編]  (12)  4  -4  2014/07
  • Book Review: Nobuta, Toshihiro, Living on the Periphery: Development and Islamization among the Orang Asli
    NAGATSU Kazufumi  Japanese Journal of Cultural Anthropology  71-  (1)  144  -147  2006
  • Islamization of the Sama Dilaut in Sabah, Malaysia
    NAGATSU Kazufumi  IIAS News Letters (Leiden: The International Institute for Asian Studies)  31-  17  -17  2002
  • People on the Borders
    NAGATSU Kazufumi  Asia Center News (The Japan Foundation)  20-  20  -21  2002
  • Pirates, Sea Nomads or Protectors of Islam? A Note on “Bajau" Identifications in the Malaysian Context.
    Asian and African Area Studies  1: 212-230-  2001
  • Living on the Sea: Stilt Houses of the Sama in Sulu Sea
    NAGATSU Kazufumi  Community (Institute of Regional Society Studies)  127-  63  -69  2001
  • Sama-Dilaut and Explosive Fishing: A Perspective on Coral Reef Conservation
    NAGATSU Kazufumi  Newsletter of Japan Society of Tropical Ecology  37-  1  -7  1999
  • Coral Reef Fisherfolks and Their Space Cognition : Notion of "Land", "Sea" and Coral Reef Space among Sama in Sitangkai, Sulu Archipelago.
    Southeast Asian Studies.  35(2): 261-300-  1997
  • A Sketch on the Southward Migratory Movement of the Sama in and around the West Celebes Sea.
    The Journal of Sophia Asian Studies.  15: 99-131-  1997
  • Water Villages
    NAGATSU Kazufumi  Encyclopedia of Southeast Asia: Landscape, Ecology and Environment  354  -355  1997
  • The Sulu Sea Zone
    NAGATSU Kazufumi  Encyclopedia of Southeast Asia: Landscape, Ecology and Environment  348  -349  1997
  • Research on Bajau Communities : Maritime People in Southeast Asia. (共著)
    Asian Research Trends : A Humanities and Social Science Review.  6: 45-70-  1996
  • Maritime Folks: Their Mobile Way of Life
    NAGATSU Kazufumi  Integrated Area Studies  15-  13  -15  1996
  • Sama Bajau Newsletter
    Lapian Adrian B; NAGATSU Kazufumi edited  Sama Bajau Newsletter  2-  1996
  • Magambit: The Sama’s Tradi- tional Fishing Technique and its Change.
    NAGATSU Kazufumi  Sama Bajau Newsletter  1-  7  -8  1995/05

Research Grants & Projects

  • JSPS:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(KAKEN): Challenging Research (Exploratory)
    Date (from‐to) : 2017/04 -2020/03 
    Author : NAGATSU Kazufumi
  • JSPS:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)
    Date (from‐to) : 2013/04 -2016/03 
    Author : NAGATSU Kazufumi
  • 文部科学省:科学研究費補助金(基盤研究(B))
    Date (from‐to) : 2011 -2015 
    Author : 鏡味 治也; 森山 幹弘; 中谷 文美; 長津 一史; 金子 正徳; 津田 浩司
  • 文部科学省:科学研究費補助金(基盤研究(A))
    Date (from‐to) : 2011 -2014 
    Author : 山田 勇; 阿部 健一; 竹田 晋也; 市川 昌広; 赤嶺 淳; 平田 昌弘; 落合 雪野; 長津 一史; 鈴木 伸二
    本研究の目的は、ユーラシア大陸辺境域の「生態資源」に焦点を当て、1)生態資源をとりまく変容過程を明らかにし、2)生態資源への国家規制と住民の対応を調査し、小地域の投げかける新たな方向性を見いだし、合わせて、3)生態の全く異なる二地域における共通性を探ることによって両地域の実像を浮かび上がらせることにある。現地調査としては、フィリピンのビコールやビサヤにおいてジンベイザメについての実態調査、および、鯨類(cetacean)と板鰓類魚類(elasmobranch)といった稀少資源の利用と保全の両立の可能性を検討するために同地域でグリーンツーリズムについても調査を実施した。これらの調査研究は、「食」の生産から消費までを俯瞰し、生活様式・生活環境の変遷をたどりながら、生態資源や現代社会を複眼的にとらえる試みでもある。また、東ジャワ州カンゲアン諸島サプカンにても、海産資源、特にウミガメ(タイマイ、アオウミガメ)に焦点を当て、その利用形態の変遷を調査し、政治・経済構造と比較しつつ分析をおこなった。一方、陸域における稀少生態資源については、ラオスのルアンパバーン市とヴィエンチャン市での染織工房技術と綿織物生産者の現状、エチオピア北部アファール州での異常稀少に伴う牧畜民伝統技術と生業の崩壊、マレーシア・サラワク州での都市移住者の出身村での資源管理・利用などについて調査を実施した。稀少生態資源についての情報収集は、H24年度は主に国際会議に出席することによって実施した。パナマで7月に開催された国際捕鯨委員会会議(IWC64)に参加し、捕鯨に関するエコポリティクスの動向を探った。更に、バンコクで2013年3月に開催された第16回ワシントン条約締約国会議CITES CoP16に参加し、稀少資源保全の世界的枠組みについて最新情報を収集した。沈香をめぐる中国を中心にした動きが活発になった。
  • 文部科学省:科学研究費補助金(挑戦的萌芽研究)
    Date (from‐to) : 2012 -2013 
    Author : 長津 一史; 青山 和佳; 赤嶺 淳
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(挑戦的萌芽研究)
    Date (from‐to) : 2011 -2012 
    Author : Jun AKAMINE; Kazufumi NAGATSU
    The present world called environmentalism pays more attention to the protection of marine wildlife such as whales and tunas and marine conservation has become the international political issue. The present study looked into the way of life that people use of the wildlife and they make a living depending on it. This study established the Indigenous Commercial Rights (ICRs) and examined its elaboration and the validity of the ICR concept and analyzed a social system designing to guarantee the sustainable use of such wildlife.
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(基盤研究(B))
    Date (from‐to) : 2010 -2012 
    Author : Jun AKAMINE; Yukino OCHIAI; Yukino IWAI; Kazufumi NAGATSU
    An analyses of aquatic species listed in the Appendix I and II of the CITES revealed that after 2000, the Conference of the Parties (CoPs) listed the commercially exploited aquatic species such as sharks. This probably indicates food security can be an obstacle to wildlife protection. Similar cases would be that an African elephant protected in the national parks damages the neighboring farming field. The sustainable use of wildlife needsmultidirectional examination.
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(基盤研究(B))
    Date (from‐to) : 2010 -2012 
    Author : Makoto ITO; Yamashita YAMASHITA; Makoto KOIKE; Naito NAITO; Kazuhfumi NAGATSU; Mika KUSHIMA; Toshihiro NOBUTA
    Experiences as migrants in the globalized world are giving various choices to contract workers' life plan regardless of man and woman. Among return migrants, we can find those who invest their fund in a new business, or those who try to use funds even for social welfare activities, without consuming their funds for temporary purpose such as one for new housing. Migration today has got more systematically organized than traditional type of migration, and has been ruled by migration industries. But, according to our finding, even in such conditions, migration today gives many opportunities to emerge kinds of new entrepreneursamong migrants.
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(基盤研究(C))
    Date (from‐to) : 2009 -2011 
    Author : Kazufumi NAGATSU; Jun AKAMINE; 青山 和佳; Waka AOYAMA
    This research project aimed at comparatively exploring dynamics of the development processes among the Sama(Bajau) as a marginalized society in the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia since the 1960s. The development processes were closely related to the national policies. Meanwhile, the development projects have been arranged in highly globalized circumstances since the 1990s. In the latter process, the Sama became more conscious of their social status than previously, and begun to organize various social activities to de-marginalize themselves in all the three countries. We have depicted the cases of this social phenomenon and examined the local historical contexts.
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(基盤研究(B))
    Date (from‐to) : 2009 -2011 
    Author : Seiichi MATSUMOTO; Takehide GOTO; Kazufumi NAGATSU; Hiroko UENO; Waka AOYAMA; Jun AKAMINE; Akiko WATANABE
    This research project aimed to examine and compare the dynamics of historical process in which the transnational communities have been formed or reorganized at the peripheries in East Asia and Southeast Asia. Based on data on migrations and social practices of the transnational actors, we attempted to show the characteristics of their social networks at micro, mezzo, and macro level. The case studies revealed that we may well contrast the patterns of(re) formation of the transnational communities in the two studied areas, when we understand the differences of ecological setting as well as historical meaning of nation-state between the two areas.
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(基盤研究(A))
    Date (from‐to) : 2007 -2010 
    Author : Isamu YAMADA; 阿部 健一; 竹田 晋也; 市川 昌広; 赤嶺 淳; 長津 一史; Kenichi ABE; Shinya TAKEDA; Masahiro ICHIKAWA; Jun AKAMINE; Masahiro HIRATA; Kazufumi NAGATU; Shinji SUZUKI
    The purpose of this research activity is to figure out the depletion situation of rare ecological resources by ecological disturbances, understand the changes of those utilization by traditional techniques, and then attempt to construct a new strategy for the conservation of damaged ecological resources. During the 4 years activities, all research members surveyed about the current situation and changes of ecological-resources. See "4. Research results" for details. In the whole, the decrease and degradation of ecological-resources are severely ongoing over the world, the traditional techniques for those utilization are also drastically changed and drained. These phenomena are closely related to international economy balance and political structure. The new concept "Eco-politics", which means "Ecological-human influential relationship accompanied with regal rules", is proposed as a new strategy for the conservation and reparation of damaged ecological resources. The eco-politics means "Ecological-human influential relationship accompanied with regal rules".
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(基盤研究(C))
    Date (from‐to) : 2007 -2009 
    Author : Jun AKAMINE; Kazufumi NAGATSU
    Precious maritime resources such as tuna fish, grouper fish, sharks fin, sea cucumber which have been exported to outside world from Southeast Asia, are the one of the main keys to trigger population movement within Southeast Asia. The project investigated formation processes of highly "mobile" maritime communities within which capitals, materials, and information have been dynamically traded. Global environmental agreements (GEAs) such as CITES and CBD not only play an important roles to conserve wildlife in marine eco-system but also such agreements often collapse intangible fishing cultures or heritage. The project paid attention to relationship between environmentalism and local practices in search for better collaborative relationship.
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(基盤研究(A))
    Date (from‐to) : 2007 -2009 
    Author : Haruya KAGAMI; 金子 正徳; Satoshi NAKAGAWA; Mikihiro MORIYAMA; Ayami NAKATANI; Masaaki OKAMOTO; Kazufumi NAGATSU; Hideharu UMEDA; Kiyoshi NAKAMURA; Shouta HUKUOKA; Masanori KANEKO; Mariko ARATA
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(若手研究(B))
    Date (from‐to) : 2006 -2008 
    Author : Kazufumi NAGATSU
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(基盤研究(B))
    Date (from‐to) : 2005 -2007 
    Author : Takehide GOTO; 小林 修一; 石丸 由美; 後藤 明; Shunichi SATO; 子島 進; Hiroshi SAITO; Kazufumi NAGATSU; Atsushi OKUDA; Nobuo MISAWA
    In Asian Countries, including Japan, we can find the existence of two great Law Culture. First, 'the Traditional Order Model', which was created under the influence of the Old Chinese Culture. Second, 'the National Statute Law', which was introduced from European Countries. At the viewpoint of the Law History, we had various academic studies about the process of the collaboration of these two Law Cultures. Recently we find the great influence of "the Islamic Law" as the third impact on Asian Countries. For example, the population of the Islamic believer (Muslim) has increased explosively. in the South East Asia area like Indonesia, Malaysia and Bangladesh. Furthermore it has become impossible to ignore their influences even in Buddhist countries, like Myanmar, Thailand and Laos.So we examined how old two Law Cultures, 'the Traditional Order Model' and 'the National Statute Law', collaborated at the expansion of the influence of the Islamic Law. We investigated this phenomenon in Middle East area and a South Eastern Asian area. According to the comparison of these two area studies, we could understand the real process of the collaboration of the old two Law Culture due to the change of the trend of social order.Sometimes the Islamic Law stimulates the exising two Law Culture, but usually they coexisted in the South East Asia Area. We find that they collaborated in the both towns and villages of various'countries. On the other hand, in the Middle East area, the Islamic Law gropes to collaborate with 'the National Statute Law', which are arranged in the European countries. In this way, it is possible to conclude the new Law Culture is being formed in the South East Asia area and the Middle East area.We made some presentations at academic society, published some academic articles and publication to announce the result of our academic research project.
  • 文部科学省:科学研究費補助金(萌芽研究)
    Date (from‐to) : 2005 -2006 
    Author : 赤嶺 淳; 長津 一史
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(基盤研究(A))
    Date (from‐to) : 2002 -2004 
    Author : Tsuyoshi KATO; Hiromu SHIMIZU; Kazufumi NAGATSU; 足立 明; Takashi TORII; Yasuyuki NAGAFUTI; 玉置 泰明; Ayami NAKATANI; 青山 和佳
    Since the 1960s, many countries of Southeast Asia have undergone rapid and drastic changes under developmentalistic regimes. Many studies have been carried out about these changes, but peripheral worlds in these countries, exposed to developmental policies since the 1970s, have relatively been neglected in these academic endeavors. The present research project tried to ameliorate this void. In particular, the project aimed to understand changes in three types of peripheral worlds, namely, minority, border space, and gender, in three Southeast Asia countries of Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines which had for a long time been under strong development-oriented political leadership.Research activities of the project included overseas fieldwork, library research, and once-a-year seminar. The overall compilation of research results led to the printing of a voluminous research report. The research report consists of four sections. In the first section "Overview of Developmental Processes in Island Southeast Asia," developmental policies pertaining to minority, border space, and gender are reviewed historically for the three countries in question and relevant documents on the topics are compiled. In the second section "Minority," changes experienced by forest dwellers of Sumatra, orang asli of Peninsular Malaysia, and mountain people of Luzon are discussed. In the third section "Border Space," shifting regional identity of cultural border area in Riau, Islamization of peripatetic sea people of Sabah, and changing religious affiliation of refugees in Mindanao are examined. In the fourth section "Gender," fluctuating images of woman and family in Indonesian discourses, hospitalization of birth deliveries in rural Malaysia, and politico-social implications of increasing overseas female migrants from Mindanao are investigated.
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(基盤研究(A))
    Date (from‐to) : 2001 -2003 
    Author : Patricio n; ABINALES; 立本 成文; Koji TANAKA; Isamu YAMDA; Kazufumi NAGATSU; Takashi SHIRAISHI; Hiromu SHIMIZU
    This project main goal was to explore the socio-cultural structures and dynamics in the 20th century Wallacean world that includes the southern parts of the Philippines, Sabah in Malaysia and the eastern parts of Indonesia. It especially focused on the everyday life of maritime peoples of the area, the maritime networks that developed there, and the kinds of border policing that the governments of Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines tried to implement to regulate these communities and networks.The research team conducted individual and join field investigations and archives research. Members of the team also exchanged findings and analyses with members of the Indonesian Institute of Science. In these exchanges with our Indonesian colleges, we presented the following points :1) a historical outline of the major themes of the research, i.e., the interaction between everyday life of peoples there and policing in these regions2) the development of resident registration and immigration control,3) changes in the livelihood activities of people and communities, the flow and outcomes of migration within the Wallacrea region, and the impact of the use of resources related to development policy.In the March 2004, seven members of the project presented and discussed the result of research conducted in the three years at an international workshop in Jakarta. The presentation aimed at sharing the team's growing understanding of the socio-economic and culture dynamics in the Wallacean world, particularly as these related to the enclosure of lands and seas by modern states and by colonization or nationalization of peoples' lives.
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(基盤研究(A))
    Date (from‐to) : 1999 -2001 
    Author : Tsuyoshi KATO; 小瀬木 えりの; Noboru ISHIKAWA; Yukio HAYASHI; Yasushi SADAYOSHI; Kazufumi NAGATSU; 小瀬木 えりの
    During the three-year project period, seven Japanese members and two overseas participants were involved in field-based research, centered on their respective field sites. In addition, members were able to extend their research both in time and space, including Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand, Myanmar and Laos, as well as conducting library research in the U.S. Through this research, we were able to conduct basic research on the historical processes of inter-ethnic relationship and mobility as well as religious dynamics and cultural reconfiguration. By extending our temporal and spatial perspectives, we have been able to include comparative perspectives. At the end of each fiscal year, we met to check on our framework and orientation.Against the background of the rapid changes in the past three decades, which have been caused by the global fluidity of capital, people, and culture, it is no longer possible to work solely from the perspective of a nation state. With this in mind, we have looked across national boundaries with the key concepts of inter-ethnic relationship, mobility and cultural reconfiguration, so as to better understand the processes of change in a multi-ethnic and multi-religious region. By so doing we have been able to re-position each our own previously held understanding of local issues, to a larger systematic understanding of social, political and economic changes. By mutual interchange of ideas, each of us was able to depict the inter-ethnic relationship in the construction of nation state, and further realize and depict that by factors such as religion and introduction of globalized economy, such dynamics cannot be understood within a singular nation state framework.
  • 国境海域における人口移動の研究
  • 東南アジア海域の社会動態に関する研究
  • Study on Population Movement around National Boundary in Sea
  • Study on Social Dynamics in Maritime Southeast Asia

Teaching Experience

  • Minorities in Southeast AsiaMinorities in Southeast Asia Sophia University
  • Social History of Islam in Southeast AsiaSocial History of Islam in Southeast Asia The University of Tokyo
  • Comparative Studies on ReligionComparative Studies on Religion Shiga Prefectural University
  • Seminar on Socio-Cultural StudiesSeminar on Socio-Cultural Studies Toyo University
  • Socio-Cultural Studies on AsiaSocio-Cultural Studies on Asia Toyo University
  • Cultura AnthropologyCultura Anthropology Toyo University

Committee Membership

  • 2012/01 - Today   Japan Society for Southeast Asian Studies   Committee Member
  • 2004 -2005   Japan Society for Southeast Asian History   Chief Secretariat   Japan Society for Southeast Asian History

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