※苗字と名前の間にスペースをあけ、入力してください

Kiyoshi Ando

Faculty
Department of Social Psychology
21th Century Human Interaction Research Center
Institute of Human Sciences
Course of Social Psychology
PositionProfessor
Mail
HomepageURL
Birthday
Last Updated :2020/07/09

Researcher Profile and Settings

Education

  •  - 1979 , The University of Tokyo
  •  - 1979 , The University of Tokyo, Graduate School, Division of Humanities

Research Activities

Research Areas

  • Humanities & social sciences, Social psychology
  • Humanities & social sciences, Sociology
  • Humanities & social sciences, Social psychology

Research Interests

    GHQ, guilt feeling, self-concept, IES, ATTRIBUTION, PTSD, SELF-ESTEEM, Social psychology

Misc

  • 東日本大震災とジャーナリストの惨事ストレス(3)―被災地内新聞社への質問紙調査からみた取材・報道活動と心身の自覚症状―, 福岡欣治, 高橋尚也, 松井豊, 安藤清志, 井上果子, 畑中美穂, 日本心理学会大会発表論文集, 76th,   2012 08
  • 東日本大震災とジャーナリストの惨事ストレス(1)被災地内新聞社を対象とした予備的面接調査, 福岡欣治, 井上果子, 畑中美穂, 安藤清志, 松井豊, 日本トラウマティック・ストレス学会大会プログラム・抄録集, 11th,   2012
  • Psychological effects of bereavement in airline disasters: the case of victims of China Airlines Flight 140 crash (1), The Bulletin of Faculty of Sociology,Toyo University, 48, (2) 57 - 71,   2011 03
  • 新聞ジャーナリストにおける日常の職務ストレスとソーシャル・サポート―基礎的分析―, 福岡欣治, 井上果子, 松井豊, 安藤清志, 結城裕也, 畑中美穂, 板村英典, 横浜国立大学大学院教育学研究科教育相談・支援総合センター研究論集, (10) 99 - 118,   2010 10 12
  • ジャーナリストのためのPTSD予防チェックリスト作成の試み, 畑中美穂, 松井豊, 結城裕也, 福岡欣治, 安藤清志, 井上果子, 板村英典, 筑波大学心理学研究, (39) 57 - 64,   2010 02 26
  • ジャーナリストの惨事ストレス(20)管理職の惨事ストレス経験と部下の日常ストレスへの対応, 福岡欣治, 井上果子, 松井豊, 安藤清志, 畑中美穂, 日本トラウマティック・ストレス学会大会プログラム・抄録集, 9th,   2010
  • ジャーナリストの惨事ストレス(18)放送ジャーナリストにおける惨事経験と惨事ストレス対策に対する意見との関連, 畑中美穂, 松井豊, 安藤清志, 井上果子, 福岡欣治, 日本トラウマティック・ストレス学会大会プログラム・抄録集, 9th,   2010
  • ジャーナリストの惨事ストレス(19)新聞ジャーナリストにおける惨事経験と惨事ストレス対策に対する意見との関連, 結城裕也, 福岡欣治, 安藤清志, 井上果子, 松井豊, 日本トラウマティック・ストレス学会大会プログラム・抄録集, 9th,   2010
  • Job-related daily stress and social support experienced by Japanese newspaper journalists: a preliminary analysis, 10,   2010
  • 新聞ジャーナリストが経験する惨事の特徴とストレス反応, 畑中美穂, 結城裕也, 福岡欣治, 松井豊, 安藤清志, 井上果子, 板村英典, 横浜国立大学大学院教育学研究科教育相談・支援総合センター研究論集, (9) 101 - 120,   2009 10 29
  • 新聞ジャーナリストの惨事ストレス対策に関する意識, 結城裕也, 板村英典, 安藤清志, 井上果子, 松井豊, 畑中美穂, 福岡欣治, 横浜国立大学大学院教育学研究科教育相談・支援総合センター研究論集, (9) 81 - 98,   2009 10 29
  • ジャーナリストの惨事ストレス(16)―新聞ジャーナリストにおける職務上の自己開示―, 結城裕也, 安藤清志, 井上果子, 松井豊, 畑中美穂, 福岡欣治, 板村英典, 日本心理学会大会発表論文集, 73rd,   2009 08
  • ジャーナリストの惨事ストレス(15)―新聞ジャーナリストにおける職務ストレスとソーシャル・サポート―, 福岡欣治, 井上果子, 松井豊, 安藤清志, 結城裕也, 畑中美穂, 板村英典, 日本心理学会大会発表論文集, 73rd,   2009 08
  • ジャーナリストの惨事ストレス(14)―新聞ジャーナリストにおける外傷性ストレスの規定因―, 畑中美穂, 松井豊, 安藤清志, 井上果子, 福岡欣治, 結城裕也, 板村英典, 日本心理学会大会発表論文集, 73rd,   2009 08
  • Newspaper journalists' attitudes and opinions toward corporate traumatic-stress management, (9) 81 - 98,   2009
  • トラウマとジャーナリズム:ジャーナリスト,編集者,管理職のためのガイド, 福岡欣治, 井上果子, 安藤清志, 畑中美穂, 松井豊, 小城英子, 板村英典, 結城裕也, 横浜国立大学教育相談・支援総合センター研究論集, (8) 45 - 50,   2008 09 01
  • ジャーナリストの惨事ストレスに関する探索的検討 2―放送ジャーナリストおよび管理職に対する面接調査の結果報告, 畑中美穂, 福岡欣治, 松井豊, 安藤清志, 小城英子, 板村英典, 井上果子, 横浜国立大学教育相談・支援総合センター研究論集, (8) 93 - 100,   2008 09 01
  • ジャーナリストの惨事ストレス(10)自己開示と精神的健康との関連, 畑中美穂, 福岡欣治, 小城英子, 安藤清志, 井上果子, 板村英典, 松井豊, 日本心理学会大会発表論文集, 72nd,   2008 07
  • Exploratory study on traumatic stress in journalists (part 2) A report on the findings of an interview survey on broadcasting journalists and managers, 8,   2008
  • On the Japanese translation of "Trauma & journalism: a guide for journalists, editors, & managers", 8,   2008
  • 放送ジャーナリストにおける日常ストレスとソーシャル・サポート―惨事ストレス対策に向けた基礎資料として―, 福岡欣治, 小城英子, 畑中美穂, 松井豊, 安藤清志, 井上果子, 板村英典, 横浜国立大学教育相談・支援総合センター研究論集, (7) 121 - 141,   2007 09 01
  • ジャーナリストの惨事ストレス(5)放送ジャーナリストの惨事ストレス対策に対する意識, 小城英子, 畑中美穂, 福岡欣治, 松井豊, 安藤清志, 井上果子, 板村英典, 日本心理学会大会発表論文集, 71st,   2007 07
  • 地域の防災とコミュニティ意識, 大島尚, 田中淳, 今井芳昭, 加藤司, 安藤清志, 日本心理学会大会発表論文集, 71st,   2007 07
  • ジャーナリストの惨事ストレス(6)放送ジャーナリストが経験する惨事の特徴とストレス反応, 畑中美穂, 福岡欣治, 小城英子, 松井豊, 安藤清志, 井上果子, 板村英典, 日本心理学会大会発表論文集, 71st,   2007 07
  • Broadcast journalists' awareness of the need to counter stress caused by work-related traumatic incidents, 7,   2007
  • Critical incidents and stress reactions in Japanese broadcasting journalists, 7,   2007
  • Job-related daily stress and social support experienced by broadcast journalists: basic data for the effective care system of critical incident stress, 7,   2007
  • Traumatic stress among journalists: a literature review focusing on the Japanese mass media and journalism studies, Tsukuba psychological research, (33) 29 - 41,   2007
  • ジャーナリストの惨事ストレス(3)放送関係者に対する面接調査から, 畑中美穂, 安藤清志, 松井豊, 井上果子, 福岡欣治, 小城英子, 板村英典, 日本心理学会大会発表論文集, 70th,   2006 10
  • 幹部職員から見た大学窓口サービス―大学窓口サービス (3)―, 山口一美, 永房典之, 日向野智子, 八城薫, 小口孝司, 安藤清志, 日本心理学会大会発表論文集, 68th,   2004 08
  • 職員からみた大学窓口サービス―大学窓口サービス (2)―, 日向野智子, 山口一美, 永房典之, 八城薫, 小口孝司, 安藤清志, 日本心理学会大会発表論文集, 68th,   2004 08
  • 大学生からみた大学窓口サービス―大学窓口サービス (1)―, 八城薫, 日向野智子, 永房典之, 山口一美, 小口孝司, 安藤清志, 日本心理学会大会発表論文集, 68th,   2004 08
  • Psychological Responses to Bereavement : A Preliminary Examination., The Bulletin of Faculty of Sociology,Toyo University, 41, (2) 63 - 83,   2004 02
  • 小規模病院における継続的な医療事故防止への取組みに関する研究, 須藤秀一, 望月智行, 望月章子, 安藤清志, 遠矢雅史, 渡部直洋, 大道久, 病院管理, 40,   2003 08
  • 近親者との死別による心理的反応 (5)―死別直後の悲嘆の規定因―, 松井豊, 安藤清志, 福岡欣治, 日本心理学会大会発表論文集, 67th,   2003 08
  • 近親者との死別による心理的反応 (4)―GHQ12項目版,IES‐Rに関する基礎的分析―, 福岡欣治, 松井豊, 安藤清志, 日本心理学会大会発表論文集, 67th,   2003 08
  • 近親者との死別による心理的反応 (3)―無作為抽出サンプルによる一般成人調査の概要―, 安藤清志, 松井豊, 福岡欣治, 日本心理学会大会発表論文集, 67th,   2003 08
  • 病院からの医療事故関連情報の集積に向けた方法の確立とその分析による効果的な事故防止策の実施に関する研究‐小規模病院における医療事故防止への取組みに関する研究‐, 望月智行, 須藤秀一, 安藤清志, 遠矢雅史, 病院からの医療事故関連情報の集積に向けた方法の確立とその分析による効果的な事故防止策の実施に関する研究 平成14年度 総括研究報告書,   2003
  • The Influence of Social Support on the Psychological Adaptation to Bereavement : A Preliminary Examination, FUKUOKA Yoshiharu, ANDO Kiyoshi, MATSUI Yutaka, Shizuoka University of Art and Culture bulletin, 4,   2003 , Bereavement is an inevitable fact of life. There are individual differences in psychological reactions and coping strategies related to bereavement. This study examined the relationship between (1) social support immediately after the bereavement and at present ; (2) positive and negative psychological changes after bereavement ; and (3) the current state of mental health. Participants were 543 people, 384 university students (aged 18 to 24 years) and 159 of their family members (aged 40 to 59 years), who had experienced bereavement within the last 10 years. Correlation analysis indicated that social support after the bereavement was positively correlated with positive psychological change, which in turn was positively correlated with improved current mental health status.
  • 法と心理学の可能性, 原聡, 厳島行雄, 大橋靖史, 菅原郁夫, 仲真紀子, 安藤清志, 浜田寿美男, 一瀬敬一郎, 日本心理学会大会発表論文集, 64th,   2000
  • Self-esteem and the Evaluation of In- and Outgroups and Friendships among College Students, ANDO Kiyoshi, Annals of the Institute for Comparative Studies of Culture, Tokyo Woman's Christian University, 61,   2000
  • 死別反応と精神的健康との関連 航空機事故による死別反応の研究 (1), 松井豊, 福岡欣治, 安藤清志, 感情心理学研究, 7, (1) 41 - 42,   1999 09 30
  • IES(Impact of Event Scale)による死別反応測定の試み 航空機事故による死別反応の研究 (2), 福岡欣治, 松井豊, 安藤清志, 感情心理学研究, 7,   1999 09 30
  • College students and religious groups in Japan: How are they influenced and how do they perceive the group members?, K Ando, S Tsuchida, Y Imai, K Shiomura, K Murata, N Watanabe, K Nishida, K Genjida, JAPANESE PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH, 40, (4) 206 - 220,   1998 11 , Almost 9,000 Japanese college students completed a questionnaire designed to tap: how they were approached by religious groups and how they reacted to them; how they perceived "mind control" techniques which they believed were adopted by some religious groups; and how their psychological needs were related to their reactions to the attempt to influence them by religious groups. About 20% of respondents listed religion-related requests as making the most impression. Although respondents' impressions of the recruiter were somewhat favorable in comparison with those of salespersons, their level of compliance was rather low. The regression analysis showed that they tended to comply with the request when they were interested in what the agents told them, when they were not in a hurry or did not have any reason to refuse, when they had a liking for the agents, and when they were told that they had been specially selected, that they could gain knowledge of the truth, and that they could acquire a special new ability. When asked to evaluate people who were influenced or mind controlled by a religious group, the respondents tended to perceive that it was "inevitable" that they had succumbed, and they put less emphasis on dispositional factors. However, where mind control led to a criminal act, they tended to attribute responsibility to the person. More than 70% of respondents answered in the affirmative when asked if they themselves could resist being subjected to mind control, showing the students' underestimation of their personal vulnerability. The respondents' needs or values had little effect on the reactions, the interest, and the impression of the influencing attempt by religious groups.
  • Changes of group assignmest consciousness and working life. ( Japan Labor Institute S )., MATSUMOTO JUNPEI, TAKAHASHI MAKOTO, MATSUNO TAKANORI, ANDO KIYOSHI, TAO MASAO, YAMASHITA TOSHIYUKI, KIKUCHI TAKEKATSU, HOSOE TATSURO, MINAMI TAKAO, 日本労働研究機構調査研究報告書,   1998 03
  • CMC research note. No.6. CMC and personal relation., ANDO KIYOSHI, Comput Today, 14, (6) 66 - 69,   1997 11
  • Progress of service economy and changes in employment structure.Service as an occupation.( Sponsor : Japan Institute of Labor )., ANDO KIYOSHI, OGUCHI TAKASHI, KIKUCHI TAKEKATSU, NAGANAWA HISAO, MIZUNO SATOSHI, YOSHINAKA ATSUSHI, WAKAMATSU YOSUKE, WAKABAYASHI MITSURU, 日本労働研究機構調査研究報告書,   1995 03
  • SELF-DISCLOSURE IN INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS, ANDOW Kiyoshi, Essays and studies, 36, (2) 167 - 199,   1986 03 15 , Self-disclosure has many functions in intra- and interpersonal processes. The purpose of the present paper was to review and discuss social psychological studies concerning self-disclosure in interpersonal processes. (1) First, the definition of self-disclosure was established. It was stressed that it is of little use to adopt a narrow definition, such as one including "content truth" or "sincerity," or to distinguish it from "self-presentation," which is usually regarded as calculated, superficial, and manipulative. (2) Then six functions of self-disclosure were identified: expression, self-clarification, social validation, reward, social control, and regulation of intimacy or privacy. The first three may be regarded as functions which play a major role in intra-personal processes, and the rest in interpersonal processes. According to this distinction, the research method and the area which characterize each category were schematically presented. (3) In this section, studies of the "reciprocity effect," which is intimately related to the reward function, were briefly reviewed. The validities of three hypotheses were assessed. Although the "exchange hypothesis" seemed most plausible, it was stressed that future research should focus on identifying factors which facilitate or inhibit reciprocity processes. (4) Self-disclosure plays a critical role in developing interpersonal relationships. The utility value of the "social penetration theory" was assessed in the course of a review of studies in this area. Furthermore, it was suggested that the analysis of those personality traits or behavior characteristics of the target person which facilitate self-disclosure may contribute to an understanding of the acquaintance processes. (5) Self-disclosure in a given situation has a lot of information value when we try to perceive other people. This line of research was reviewed from the perspectives of the "attribution theory" and "appropriateness." In addition, the effect of self-disclosing behavior on the attraction toward the target person was discussed. (6) Although few studies have explicitly dealt with the social-control function of self-disclosure, it was found in some studies that the disclosure pattern is affected by the status or attractiveness of the target person. These findings were regarded as exemplifying an underlying motivation of social control or "ingratiation." (7) Self-disclosure can be utilized to regulate intimacy or privacy in interpersonal relationships. Among studies concerned with the "Intimacy-equilibrium theory" advocated by Argyle and Dean (1965), those which dealt with self-disclosure as a dependent variable were selected for discussion.
  • ATTRIBUTION OF PERSONAL RESPONSIBILITY AND DISSONANCE REDUCTION, H SAKAI, K ANDOW, JAPANESE PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH, 22, (1) 32 - 41,   1980
  • ATTRIBUTION OF PERSONAL RESPONSIBILITY AND DISSONANCE REDUCTION, H SAKAI, K ANDOW, JAPANESE PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH, 22, (1) 32 - 41,   1980 , The relationship between personal responsibility and dissonance reduction was investigated in a situation where an individual had to undergo a negative consequence caused by an agent beyond his control, i.e., by chance. Eighty participants received either strong or weak electric shock, depending on the oddness or evenness of spots of a die thrown either by the experimenter (Experimenter-Caused condition) or by the participant himself (Participant-Caused condition). It was found that participants in the Participant-Caused condition evaluated electric shocks less painful, estimated their heart rates to be less faster, and perceived the experimenter more intelligent and favorable than participants in the Experimenter-Caused condition. These results were interpreted as lending support to the newly reformulated dissonance theory.
  • EFFECTS OF ATTRIBUTION OF PHYSIOLOGICAL AROUSAL ON THE AFFILIATIVE TENDENCY, ANXIETY LEVEL, AND THE FREQUENCY OF GSR NONSPECIFICS, ANDO KIYOSHI, THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, 18, (2) 113 - 122,   1979 , The aim of the present study was to investigate how a person's inferential processes concerning the causes of his own physiological arousal would affect the affiliative tendency, anxiety level, and the frequency of GSR nonspecifics.<BR>28 male high school students served as Ss. Each S was given a lactose-filled pill and led to anticipate an "second experiment" which ostensibly needed a painful injection. Ss in the first group were led to believe that the pill would arouse them. Ss in the second (control) group were told that it would cause symptoms irrelevant to arousal. Ss in the third group were informed that it would make them feel relaxed.<BR>It was predicted that Ss in the first group would show lessened affiliative tendency and anxiety compared to the control group, as they were allowed to attribute their arousal to an extrinsic source. It was also predicted that Ss in the third group would show greater affiliative tendency and anxiety than would the control group as a belief that arousal had been artificially, reduced would lead to an inference that they were affected in a particularly strong way by the stimulus.<BR>Major findings were as follows ;<BR>(1) Ss who could attribute arousal to the pill were less anxious than Ss in the control and the third group when they were led to anticipate a stressful situation.<BR>(2) Ss in the first group showed lessened autonomic arousal compared to Ss in the third group.<BR>(3) No relationship was found between the induced arousal processes and the affiliative tendency.<BR>A tentative interpretation for the obtained difference in the actual autonimic arousal was suggested on the basis of Beck's model. Some implications for application of "attribution therapy" to clinical practice were also suggested.
  • Self-disclosure in the acquaintance process : Effects of affiliative tendency and sensitivity to rejection, Japanese Psychological Research, 20,   1978
  • SELF-DISCLOSURE IN THE ACQUAINTANCE PROCESS:EFFECTS OF AFFILIATIVE TENDENCY AND SENSITIVITY TO REJECTION, ANDO KIYOSHI, Japanese Psychological Research, 20, (4) 194 - 199,   1978 , The effects of people's affiliative tendency and sensitivity to rejection on the amount of self-disclosure in the acquaintance process were examined using a story format. Subject was presented with a sequential set of simulated interaction scenarios involving themselves and a hypothetical other person. After reading each scenario, subject was presented with a self-disclosure questionnaire containing eight high and eight low intimacy topics, and was asked to rate how much they would disclose each topic to him on 4-point scales. It was found that, in intimate area, affiliative tendency tended to facilitate self-disclosure at every stage of the relationship, whereas sensitivity to rejection inhibited it at the earlier stage. Further implications for future research were also suggested.

Research Grants & Projects

  • Psychological Study of the Effects of Relationships on self-change., Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(基盤研究(B)), In the 3-year period, each group conducted the scheduled research and obtained results as follows :1. In an experiment which examined the effects of heterosexual priming of the self-concept change, it was found that participant tended to perceive themselves more feminine than controls, only for the group who had traditional sex-role attitudes. This results suggest that priming of heterosexual relationship induced the self-categorization according to traditional female stereotype, as far as this group is concerned.2. In order to construct GHQ scale which could be used in a field studies for disaster victims, two-point scaled GHQ was constructed and examined its reliability and validity. Specifically, 167 undergraduate students were asked to complete two versions (two point- or four-point scales) of GHQ. It was found that for two-point scaled GHQ, the response rate of respondents was lower compared to four-point scale version and the reliability was rather low. Furthermore, some items lacked the discriminatory power.3. In a questionnaire study, eighty hair stylists were asked to complete the questionnaire to examine the relationship between emotion regulation strategies (reevaluation and suppression), job satisfaction, and burnout. The results showed that there was no relation between these variables for male stylists. However, for female stylists, the strategy of reevaluation was related to job satisfaction and burnout.4. In an experiment, the effects of the correspondence between participants' personality style (i.e., Introversion and extraversion) and self-presentation upon internalization of self-presentation and physiological responses. It was found that for the participants who presented themselves in the opposite direction of their personality, their pulse rate GSR were significantly increased.
  • A study on the psychologicae responses and recorery prccesses of family members of air disaster victims., Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(基盤研究(B)), Seventy-seven adults who lost their family member (s) in an air disaster were asked to complete a questionnaire which contained the 12-item version of General Health Questionnaire (GHQ ; Goldberg, 1978), the Impact of Event Scale (Horowitz et al., 1979), as well as questions which aimed to tap the reactions when they viewed the remains, the evaluation of the media, feelings toward the airline and the maker, and the enjoyment in daily activities etc.Furthermore, we sent questionnaire which contained similar questions to randomly sampled respondents. Among those who responded, we selected 835 respondents who lost (mostly by disease) the loved one within ten years and compared the data of this group (controls) to that of the bereaved in the crash. Major findings are as follows;1. The mean GHQ score for the bereaved was 5.73, which was significantly higher than the controls (M=4.06).2. The mean Intrusion, Avoidance, and Hyperarousal scores were 12.05,11.06, and 7.55 respectively, which were also significantly higher than those of controls (M's = 3.71,4.75, and 1.68).3. The mean score of theself-reported health condition was worse than that of controls and their own before the accident.4. The bereaved listed less activities which they find enjoyable than controls.5. The free descriptions of the respondents suggested that their images of the damaged human bodies they witnessed were still vivid in their memories.Overall, these results and the free descriptions of the respondents suggest that the level of grief still remains high and the psychological health has not been recovered after four years of the accident. It is to be analyzed how these results are related to the characteristics of the relationship between the respondents and the deceased, as well as other relevant variables.
  • A social psychological research on relative importance of self-esteem, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(基盤研究(C)), In Chapter 1, the result of a study which was conducted under the the hypothesis that students would evaluate their own university more positively than rival universities and this tendency would be pronounced among those who are low in self-esteem(LSE) compared to those who are high in self-esteem(HSE). One hundred-one male and 84 female students were asked to complete Rosenberg's(1965) self-esteem scale and other questions which tapped to evaluate their own and rival universities(12 items each), their own relationships with the best friend as well as the relationships of average college students(12 adjectives), etc. It was found, contrary to the prediction, that the respondents generally evaluated their own university less positively than the rival universities, except the female LSE's who evaluated their own university more positively than one of the rival university.In Chapter 2, social psyhcological studies concerning self-esteem were briefly reviewed with an emphasis on recently developed theories such as socio-meter theory and terror management theoty.In Chapter 3, the results of a replication study which aimed at the validation of the research reported in Chapter 1 were presented. In this study, self-esteem was not related to the evaluations of in- or out-group, although group-esteem was higly related to both the evaluations of in-group and out-goup.
  • Social psychological research on self-presentation of competence, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(一般研究(C)), The present study aimed at how people present one's performance in an attempt to influence other person's impression of them.In Experiment I, 506 undergraduates were presented one of the four scenarios, which manipulated the performance level and the publicity of the performance, and asked to imagine how they would present their grade to a friend. It was found that when they got grades higher than the average, they tend to be modest.In contrast, when they got grades lower than the average, they tend to selfpromote by presenting grade higher than the real one.In Experiment II, the acquaintance level was introduced as an independent variable. The procedure was almost identical to that of Exp.I.It was predicted and found that when the target of self-presentation was an intimate friend, they preferred to present their exact grades. When the target was just an acquaintance, they tend to be modest in the High-grade condition, and self-promote in the Low-grade condition.
  • A study on Cognitive and behavioral coping for evaluative situations, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(一般研究(C)), This research project composed of three parts. First, a literature review was performed concerning the process of "self-handicapping."Second, The research area which characterize an interface between social psychology and clinical psychology was reviewed. Third, the results of an experiment concerning "excuse" were reported.The present experiment aimed at investigating how people "excuse" their failure. Fifty female undergraduates served as subjects. First, they were asked to undergo an anagram task. After finishing the task, they were given a feedback which show they have done it very poorly. Then they were required to fill out a questionnaire which aimed at measuring how they excuse the failure by "consistency-lowering", "consensus-raising", or "distinctiveness-raising."It was found subjects tend to use these strategies, particularly "consensus raising."
  • The social psychological study on loss
  • Self and Interpersonal relationships